Soviet heawy tanks

1. KV-1
2. -2
3. KV-3
4. KV-8
5. Experimental KV
6. KV-1s
7. KV-85
8. Ancestors of JS
9. JS-85
12.Object 701
13.Object 252
14."Kirovets-1" (JS-3)


8. Ancestors of "JS" tanks (Object 233"JS"/234"JS")

JS-2 tank
(Object 234JS)


The tank JS-1 is developed under the order GOKO # 2943ss of March 24 1943. On the tank have established the armour body and suspension from KV-13, but the turret and some aggregates were made anew. The arms of the tank consist of 76,2-mm F-34 or ZIS-5JS cannon and two MGs. In addition the tank JS-2, distinguished by arms from 121,9-mm howitzer U-11 inside turret from the experienced tank KV-9 was made also.

The tests of tanks have passed successfully, but unreliable work of the engine was marked which was strongly heated up, large resistance to a movement on a soft ground, and also breakage of a howitzer U-11.

9. JS-85 (Object 237)

JS tank with S-31 gun JS tank with D-5 gun


In April 1943 design office ChKZ has received the order to create the new heavy tank, armed 107-mm by a gun. For a basis have taken a design of the tank JS-1 (Object 233JS). But the case was lengthened on 260 mm for installation of a new tower with a ring 1850 mm. In the chassis of the tank have established an additional pair of road wheels.

But 107-mm a gun ZIS-6 did not manage to be established in a tower of the normal sizes. Was also found out, that AMMO of such calibre are not made. Therefore on the tank was decided to install a 85-mm gun.

Two first reference tanks were equipped by guns D-5 (# 1) design factory 9 and S-31 (# 2) ZAKB and comparative tests have passed. The preference was given up to a gun D-5, which was accepted on a service. On September 4 1943 order GOKO # 4043ss the heavy tank JS-85 was accepted on a service and to serial manufacture.

10. JS-122 (Object 240)

Prototype JS-122 JS-122 with "german-type" muzzle brake JS-2 with "straight nose"


85-mm the gun was weak for the heavy tank. In USSR even was not of a demolition shell of specified calibre. In the autumn 1943 work on creation of a tank high-power gun have begun. Kotin very wanted to establish in the tank 122-mm a gun and this work has carried out design office of a factory 9. The tank has received an index "Object 240" and go to tests on November 12. In manufacture the gun has received an index D-25 (or "D-2 tank") and was accepted on service.

The mass production of JS-122 was begun in ChKZ in December 1943. Tanks of early type differed by the cannon D-25 with plungerbreech-block and muzzle brake of a "German type ". Since March - April 1944 in manufacture a gun -25 with wedge-shaped semi-automatic breech-block was mastered.

During manufacture the body of the tank changed. In August 1944 began manufacture of the case, receiving the name " with a straight nose ", which had increased shell resistance. In the spring - summer 1944 tank JS-122 was renamed in JS-2, then JS-85 has become to refer to as JS-1.

Unsufficient on UZTM (Uralmash) liquid armour has resulted in occurrence for the tank JS-122 armour body with welded frontal part. Some foreign authors name this updating JS-2, but it categorically is wrong.

11. JS-4 (Object 245), JS-5 (Object 248)

JS-4 with D-10 gun JS-5 with S-34 gun


After occurrence JS-122 work over other variants of arms for the tank proceeded. Was desire to establish on the tank a gun with a unitary shot for improvement of speed of shooting. December 27 1943 was the order of GOKO # 4851 about arms of the tank JS by new high-power guns of calibre 85 and 100 mm.

The tank with 85-mm by a high-power gun D-5-85BM was made in the spring 1944 and has received an index JS-3 (Object 244), but its tests were recognized unsuccessful.

For creation JS-100 were sent a 100-mm gun D-10 (OKB # 9) and S-34 (ZAKB). The tank, armed with the cannon D-10, has received an index JS-4 (Object 245), and its competitor - JS-5 (Object 248). Interesting to note, that in the tank JS-5 loader for convenience of his work was placed to the left of the cannon, and gunner - to the right side, that required re-arranging of all fighting compartment.

The tests of tanks proceeded up to autumn 1944 and have shown some advantages of a gun D-10T. But till November 1944 in USSR was not in manufacture 100-mm antitank shell. And spent on NIBTpoligon (prooving ground) comparative tests of 100-mm and 122-mm tank guns to the German tank "Panther", advantages of 122-mm gun D-25T have shown. Did not give application of the gun D-10 in the tank JS and gain in speed of shooting and in AMMO. The work with tanks JS-4 and JS-5 were stopped in October 1944

12. Object 701

Tank "701" #1 (D-25) Tank "701" #2 (S-34-II) Tank "701" #3 (S-34-I)


In July 1943 DB ChKZ began development of the heavy tank of new generation. By the chief of the project was nominated L.Troyanov, and later - M.Balzi. Designing the tank was conducted under an index "K", but from a beginning 1944 tank has received an index " Object 701 ". In March 1944 project was submitted for consideration GABTU and on April 8 1944 factory has received the task for manufacturing experienced samples.

In 1944 was made three samples. 1 carried a gun D-25, 2 - S-34-II and 3 - 100 mm a high-power gun S-34-I. The tests of tanks proceeded up to autumn 1944 and have revealed a plenty of defects. But armour protection of the tank (more than 160-mm in a front plate) was perfect and maintained hits all tank and antitank guns of USSR and opponent in limits of a course corner 60 deg on all distances. In September - December 1944 was let out yet two samples of the tank "701" with an improved transmission, but only at the end of April 1945 the tank was recommended for serial manufacture under an index JS-4 in view of elimination of marked lacks. But its further development went already in after war years.

13. JS-6 (Object 252, 253)

JS-6 with mechanical transmission JS-6 with EM transmission


November 13-17 1943. a Department of the Main Designer (OGK) NKTP together with VAMM by name of Stalin and NATI under a general management of 2-nd chief GBTU I.Lebedev have lead development of the fighting-technical requirements (TTT) and draft designing "tank-and-SP of high-power break", which in the beginning of December 1943 have got in Cheliabinsk.

At first wanted to make the tank with a back arrangement of fighting compartment and electromechanical transmission unit " as an assault gun Ferdinand ". But up to summer draft designing "Object 252 " and "Object 253 ", transmissions distinguished by a type and configuration was carried out only. To manufacturing have accepted variant of the tank JS-6 with " by classical configuration ".

In the summer 1944 tanks have begun to make in Uralmash factory, since ChKZ was busy by work on serial tanks and " Object 701 ". Here have developed and electromechanical transmission for the tank and have let out working drawings. However both tanks, arriving on tests conceded on armour to protection " Object 701 ", not surpassing it in arms and mobility. The tanks on arms were not accepted.

14. "-1" JS-3 (Object 703)

"Kirovets-1" (JS-3)

The work on this tank have begun in the spring 1944 within the program of modernization JS-2. It was for this purpose supposed to improve armouring of the tank within the existing weight. In modernization were engaged two design bureaus.

Factory 100 has offered to apply to the tank essentially new case, developed by V.Torotko with two sloping nose, strengthening ability of shells to ricochet, and also turret with thickness increased up to 180 mm of the frontal armour and more powerful engine (600-650 h.p.).

Design bureau of ChKZ offered to leave the former motor of the tank, and in a design of the case only to strengthen a frontal armour sheet (up to 160 mm) at constant boards and rear. But main peculiarity of the project was a low spherical turret of a design G.Kruchenykh. The development of ChKZ was more interesting for serial production, as allowed to master issue of the tank in parallel with JS-2.

However V.Malyshev, has ordered to install on the case of a factory 100 turret of G.Kruchenykh and to leave the power unit from JS-2. On October 21, 1944 the new tank, had the name "Kirovets-1" (" Object 703 ") has left on tests, and in December 1944 the tank was recommended for acceptance on service of Soviet army under an index JS-3. But serial manufacture of tanks began already after the war.