Medium SPs

1. [ SU-122 (U-35) ]
2. [ SU-122M, SU-122-III ]
3. [ SU-85-I, SU-85-IV ]
4. [ SU-85-II ]
5. [ SU-100, SU-85M ]
6. [ SU-122P ]
7. [ SU-85BM ]
8. [ "Uralmash-1" ]

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1. SU-122 (U-35)

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     Designing of 122-mm self-propelled howitzer began in the summer 1942. In the autumn three design offices have offered the projects of their battle machines. Two projects were made. The machine of Uralmashzavod was made on the chassis T-34 and has received an index U-35, and the machine of a factory 592 was made on the chassis of a German assault gun StuG III - index SG-122. After tests for a service have accepted U-35 and since January 1 1943 began its mass manufacturing.

    U-35 has received an index SU-122 and was made by three consecutive series, which differed unsignificantly. From May 1942 in AMMO of SU-122 were added hollow-charge shells. It has allowed to apply SU-122 against German tanks.


2. SU-122M, SU-122-III

SU-122
SU-122-III
before testing

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     In March 1943 Design Office of Uralmashzavod has wanted to improve the characteristics of SU-122. For the machine have made a new spacious cabin, in which was established in 122-mm howitzer U-11, which has maintained tests in a turret of the tank KV-9.

    Modified SP has received an index SU-122M. But weight and cost of the machine exceeded allowable limits, and the reliability has become worse. SU-122M on service was not accepted.

    At the end of May design Office of Uralmashzavod, together with a factory 9, once again modernized SU-122. In a body of a new type, unified with SU-85, was established in 122-mm howitzer D-6, distinguished from U-11 by smaller dimensions and weight. The tests were carried out together with SU-85. Because of breakages of SU-122-III (such index has received new SP before tests), from tests it was removed.


3. SU-85-I, SU-85-IV

SU-85-1 SU-85-4

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     Designing self-propelled of tanks-destroyers, armed by 85-mm gun, began under the order of GoKO May 5 1943. At the end of May variants of 85- guns for arms SPs have made ZAKB and factory 9.

     The gun of ZAKB has received an index S-18 and was intended for arms of heavy tanks KV. For installation in SP it have added by a Cardan frame and shaking armour of a new type. But the sizes of a state part of a gun S-18 have appeared very large. It has given large difficulties for installation of a gun in a cabin SU-85.

     Uralmashzavod wanted to adapt S-18 in a cabin SU-85. It have made by two different ways in machines SU-85-I and SU-85-IV.

  •  SU-85-I For this machine, have made new gun-cradle and armour protection. The coaxial machine gun was removed.
  •  SU-85-IV This variant was made on demandof ZAKB. The gun was left without changes, but the cabin of SP was a little bit changed in a forward part.

     SU-85-IV was rejected, and SU-85-I has lost tests to the machine SU-85-II. On a service these SPs were not accepted.


4. SU-85 (SU-85-II)

SU-85 (SU-85-II)

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     The project SU-85-II was made by Design Office of Uralmashzavod for 85-mm gun D-5, developed by a factory 9. At first this gun was considered only as reserve variant, if there will be the difficulties with S-18 gun.

     But the tests have shown advantages of convenience of application D-5 and its more reliable work. After governmental tests the commission under presidency of the general - leutenant of tank troopses Taranovitch recommended SU-85-II for acceptance for a service of tank troopses in quality "85-mm assault AT self-propelled gun SU-85 " in exchange to SU-122.

    The first regiment with SU-85, has come on front in September 1943.


5. SU-100, SU-85M

SU-100 SU-85M

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     November 11 1943 Artillery management of Soviet Army has offered to develop AT high-power gun of calibre 100 mm. In the beginning of December 1943 Design Office of Uralmashzavod has offered the project of a new armoured cabin of SP with thickness increased up to 75-mm of the frontal armour and intended for installation of guns of large calibre. The project was approved and soon the hull of a new type was tested.

    For arms of new machines were prepared 100-mm of a gun S-34 (ZAKB) and D-10 (DB of a factory 9). But for installation of a gun S-34 it was necessary to alter battle branch of the SP (gunner should sit from the right side). It has caused large difficulties. At the end of February 1944 DB of a factory 9 has made a 100-mm gun D-10. On March 3 SU-100, armed by a gun D-10, has left on production tests. The operational development of a gun last up to summer and on July 3 1944 SU-100 with a gun D-10 was accepted on a service in exchange SU-85. The Uralmashzavod was ready to begin serial manufacture of SU-100, but the industry had not time to prepare for it a 100-mm an armour-piercing round. The manufacture of the new machine was stopped.

    Under the offer of the main designer of a Uralmashzavod L.Gorlitski, the manufacturing of hulls SU-85 from July 1944 was stopped, and 85-mm gun D-5S have begun to establish in a huli SU-100, having the thicker armour and more spacious battle branch. This SP gun has received an index SU-85M and was made till December 1944, when on change to it has come SU-100 with new round.

    The first battle SU-100 have accepted in January 1945. The new machines acted for arms of SP brigades (SABr) of the Reserve of a Main head-quarters (RGK). SU-100 up to the end of war were most powerful serial AT SP of SOVIET Army.


6. SU-122P

SU-122

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     As the manufacture of SU-100 was stopped for the lack of an armour-piercing shell, and powerful AT SPs were required, DB of a Uralmashzavod has offered to establish in a frame of SU-100 instead of a gun D-10, 122-mm tank gun D-25.

     In the autumn 1944 tests of SU-100 of the second series, armed in 122-mm gun D-25 have begun. After production tests SU-122P (such index the new machine has received), it was sent to Gorokhovetski prowing ground for Government tests, which has passed successfully. On October 1 1944 SU-122P was recommended for acceptance on a service.

     The machine was not made because the quick-firing of SU-122P has appeared very small (there was whole one loader), and for struggle of the enemys fortress in opinion of a management suited more JSU-152 and JSU-122.


7. 85-mm antitank SPs of a high-power

SU-85BM SU-S-34-I SU-D-10-85

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     After study seized and damage on a Kursk Arch SPs "Frdinand", GAU has put forward the requirements about creation of special 85-mm Anti-tank gun with ballistics, close to the ballistics of German StuK 43 (PaK 43).

    In the first a 85-mm gun of increased power has made by DB of a factory 9. The gun D-5-S-85BM has kept a cartridge case from 85-mm AA gun, and at the expense of increase of a gunpowder charge and length of a barrel, initial speed of an armour-piercing shell it was possible up to 950 m/s. Tests SU-85BM, armed this gun, passed in January - March 1944. On a service SU-85BM have not accepted.

    ZAKB in the spring of 1944 have made 85-mm a self-propelled gun S-34-1B, in which round were used a cartridge case with gunpowder from 100-mm gun. New cannon, mounted in battle cabin of SU-85, has passed tests in the summer 1944 , but it is unsuccessful. Unstable flight of an armour-piercing shell was observed.

    In the autumn 1944 new 85-mm a high-power gun for SU-100 has offered of DB of a factory 9. The new gun D-10-85PM used a cartridge case from 100-mm gun with an strengthened charge, and the barrel of a gun it was in addition lengthened by a special smooth pipe of length 1 m.. The tests were conducted till March 1945 and were stopped.

    Any of these self-propelled guns on a service was not accepted.


8. "Uralmash-I"

SU-101


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     After study of experience of front use various SPs, in August 1943 main designer of a Uralmashzavod L.Gorlitski has offered to design of SP with a battle cabin behind. Such configuration was the most successful for battles without ways and protected better crew of the machine. However the chief of OGK NKTP Ber has not permitted to make SU-100 with such configuration.

    But in 1944 such decision was approved and by ctober the Uralmashzavod has made 4 projects of different perspectiv machines, two from which had configuration " for a Ferdinand type ".

    October 26 the Uralmashzavod has received the order to finish designing and to construct an experienced sample such SP with use of the engine and mechanisms of the tank T-44. In March the project of the machine, receiving a name "Uralmash-1", was carried out, and in the beginning of May on tests sometimes there were the experienced samples. One was armed by 100-mm gun D-10S (SU-101), and the second - 122-mm gun D-25-44S (SU-102) with a unitary round. Both self-propelled have shown on tests good results and were recommended for acceptance on a service. But the war was terminated, and for a service in peace time the reliability of mechanisms of the tank T-44 was unsufficient. On a service "Uralmash-1" have not accepted